Eating a balanced diet with protein, carbohydrates, vegetables, and fats is important, but what happens if we don’t eat enough or too much of these vital foods? How does it affect our bodies? We’ve already reviewed protein, so let’s review carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are our body’s main source for energy. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbs are foods with single and double sugar molecules. This includes glucose, fructose and sucrose. Common simple carb foods include milk (also a protein), table sugar, and fruit.
Complex carbs are foods that contain multiple sugar molecules linked together by “starch.” Foods high in complex carbs include legumes, grains, starchy vegetables like corn/peas, pasta, and bread.
The glycemic index (GI) is a measurement of how much blood sugar (fuel) increases based on carbohydrate intake. The higher the GI number, the more blood sugar goes up. The Farrell's nutrition plan was made to give members a low glycemic load that keeps them in “burn mode” throughout the day, preventing cravings and eating too much.
Too Little Carbs
Carbs are an important macronutrient. Eliminating or decreasing carbs from your diet can have some side effects that we’ve shown below.
Energy Loss & Fatigue—Carbs are our main fuel source. Not eating enough healthy carbs reduces the body’s fuel source. If you don’t have enough glucose from healthy carbs to burn, the body will begin burning fat. Doesn’t sound like a bad thing, but for active individuals, weakness and energy loss will happen quickly and long-term effects could mean limited performance.
Constipation—Our dietary fiber comes from complex carbs and is necessary for bathroom regularity. A low-carb diet could cause constipation, so it’s important to be certain you’re eating enough healthy fiber, or “roughage” as they used to say, to stay regular.
Mood Changes—Carbohydrates have been linked to the release of serotonin in the brain, which is the chemical responsible for making us feel happy. Not enough healthy carbs can mean a decline in serotonin levels, possibly bringing on mood changes like anger, sadness, and even mild symptoms of depression.
Hypoglycemia—Not enough carbs can mean low blood sugar, which can lead to hypoglycemia. Warning signs of hypoglycemia include shakiness, dizziness, hunger, weakness, and difficulty speaking.
Ketosis—Ketosis is a regular metabolic action. If you don’t have adequate glucose (energy) from carbs to burn, your body will start burning fat, which is known as ketosis. During this process, your body makes ketones for a fuel source. If you’re eating a balanced diet, this isn’t an issue and your body gets used to to your levels. Where ketosis can become dangerous is when your body builds up too many ketones from lack of energy, which can lead to dehydration and a chemical imbalance in the blood. Many individuals use a low-carb ketogenic diet for weight loss, but it needs to be balanced to assure you’re still getting plenty of what your body requires to work normally. Learn more about ketosis here.
Too Many Carbs
What could happen to your body if you eat too many unhealthy carbs?
Sugar Crash—We’ve all been through it. The blood sugar roller coaster of eating too many refined carbs and then suddenly crashing and feeling exhausted. Eating carbs high on the glycemic index can cause an increase in blood sugar because they are quickly absorbed versus carbs that are high in fiber that digest at a less rapid pace, letting out energy over time. When this spike occurs, our bodies release hormones to manage blood sugar, which causes the crash. Carbs that are complex and dense in fiber will help avoid the carb spike and crash.
Type 2 Diabetes—While not an immediate cause of consuming too many high-glycemic carbs, a high-carb diet can put you at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Eating the right portion size is essential for lowering the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. While carbs, and the sugars from carbs, are vital for proper performance, they need to be portioned for what is needed. An overabundance of sugary drinks and foods is what puts you at risk.
Adding just one serving of a sweet drink to your diet daily ups your risk by 15 percent, according to a study from the Harvard School of Public Health, published in November 2010 in Diabetes Care.
Weight Gain—Taking in too many refined carbs or high-glycemic carbs can also make you gain weight, which could lead to becoming overweight or obese, which can lead to more health concerns like stroke, heart disease, and sleep apnea. Eating too many carbs, like any macronutrient, means we have too much in our bodies. When we have this overload, our body stores the excess as fat.
When planning meals and grocery shopping, make a routine to review the nutrition label. Avoid foods that have added sugar and sweeteners and drink water instead of sugary drinks and sodas.
If you’re applying your Farrell's nutrition plan, you’re already getting the proper, balanced nutrition your body needs to perform effectively and efficiently to perform in and outside of the gym.
If you're currently not a member of Farrell's and not meeting your fitness goals, reach out to one of our locations or join our next session to experience a real fitness transformation! We also offer free trial classes!
- Everyday Health